"The study concludes that the cyberattacks against Georgian targets were carried out by civilians, many of them recruited via social networking forums devoted to dating, hobbies and politics."It points out the complexities involved in politically motivated attacks due to the involvement of actors with varying skills and agendas:
"...sympathizers who were not hackers, and who didn't even know much about computers, could participate.The report has not been made public.
"The report says the civilian cyberattackers were aided and supported by Russian organized crime. Although they found no evidence of direct involvement by the Russian government or military, the report concludes that the organizers were tipped off about the timing of Russian military operations."
Study warns of cyberwarfare during military conflicts